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Civil rights movement

The realities of Jim Crow

Railways cars

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Louisiana, That all railway companies carrying passengers in their coaches in this State, shall provide equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored races, by providing two or more passenger coaches for each passenger train, or by dividing the passenger coaches by a partition so as to secure separate accommodations. No person persons, shall be permitted to occupy seats in coaches, other than the ones assigned to them on account of the race they belong to.

Act of Louisiana 1890

Interracial marriage

The legislature shall never pass any law to authorize or legalize any marriage between any white person and a negro, or descendent of a negro.

Constitution of Alabama 1901


That in the State penitentiary and in all county jails, stockades, convict camps, and all other places where State or county prisoners may at any time be kept confined, separate apartments shall be provided and maintained for white and negro prisoners.

Acts of Arkansas 1903


That in the cities and towns of this commonwealth where this act shall be adopted … the entire area within the respective corporate limits thereof shall … be divided into districts, the boundaries whereof shall be plainly designated in such ordinance and where shall be known as ‘segregated districts’ …

Acts of Virginia 1912

Telephone booths

The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies in the state of Oklahoma to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths…

Laws of Oklahoma, 1915


No textbook issued or distributed under this act to a white child shall ever be issued or redistributed to a colored school child, and no textbook issued to a colored child shall ever be reissued or distributed to a white school child.

Acts of Kentucky, 1928

Advocacy of racial equality

Any person, firm or corporation who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and negros, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Laws of Mississippi